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C Geology One Week B. Solved Paper B. English Literature B. History B. Political Science B. Geography B. Hindi Literature B. Sociology B. Economics B. Public Administration Unsolved Papers B. Previous Unsolved MA.Shiksha is the field of Vedic study of sound, focussing on the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet, accent, quantity, stress, melody and rules of euphonic combination of words during a Vedic recitation.
Shiksha is the oldest and the first auxiliary discipline to the Vedasmaintained since the Vedic era. Shiksha literally means "instruction, lesson, study, knowledge, learning, study of skill, training in an art".
The roots of Shiksha can be traced to the Rigveda which dedicates two hymns We will explain the Shiksha.
State Origin Principles ( राज्य की उत्पत्ति के सिद्धान्त )
Sounds and accentuation, Quantity of vowels and the expression of consonantsBalancing Saman and connection of soundsSo much about the study of Shiksha. Other texts, such as Vyasa-Siksa of the Krishna Yajurvedawere composed later. The ancient Vedic schools developed major treatises analyzing sound, vowels and consonants, rules of combination and pronunciation to assist clear understanding, to avoid mistakes and for resonance pleasing to the listener.
Having intellectually determined the object to be communicated to others, the soul urges the mind in order to give expression, i. The mind so stimulated acts upon the physical fire which in its turn brings about a movement in the region of internal air. The internal air thus moved gets upward till it reaches the vocal apparatus. Shikshastates Hartmut Scharfe, was the first branch of linguistics to develop as an independent Vedic field of study among the Vedangas.
The earliest Brahmanas — a layer of text within the Vedasinclude some terms of art in the Vedic phonetics, such as Varna and Avasana. The Shiksha field was likely well developed by the time Aranyakas and Upanishads layer of the Vedas were being composed. The insights from this field, states Scharfe, "without doubt was applied by Vedic scholars to the art of writing".
It also impacted the development of Indic scripts and evolution of language in countries that sought Indian texts or were influenced by Indian religions. A strictly symmetrical [Sanskrit] alphabet definitely has practical advantages in language teaching, but this is almost certainly not the reason for its highly complex structure. A better explanation of the structural density is the striving for perfect and beautifully formed representation of the object of study. The rule of the grammarians show a similar striving for order.
The Shiksha field of Vedic studies arranged the Sanskrit alphabet in a rational order, state Wilke and Moebus, each mapped to the anatomical nature of human sounds, from the back to the front — throat at the very backpalate, palatal ridge, teeth and lips. These Mudras continue to be part of the classical Indian dance tradition.
The methodical phonetic procedure developed by Shiksha helped preserve the Vedas without the slightest variants in the most faithful way possible. The rules and symmetric of Siksa helped the student to master enormous volumes of knowledge, and use the embedded codes and rules to self check his memory. However, state Wilke and Moebus, the Shiksha methodology has been not just highly technical, it has strong aesthetic "sensuous, emotive" dimension, which foster thinking and intellectual skills in a participatory fashion.
Naradiya Siksa, a phonetics treatise on the Sama Veda explains this aspects of phonology with various similes, such as. Just as a tigress takes her cubs tightly in her teeth without hurting them, whilst fearing that she might drop them and injure them, so one should approach the individual syllables.
Pratisakhyas are the oldest Shiksha textbooks of each branch of the Vedas. There are separate Pratishakhyas for each Veda. They complement the books called Shiksha written by various authorities.
Several Pratishakhyas have survived into the modern era, and these texts refine the structure of sound at different levels of nuance, some adding many more letters to the basic set in the Sanskrit alphabet: . The Shiksha Texts and the Pratishakhyas led to great clarity in understanding the surface structure of language. For clarity of pronunciation, they broke up the large Vedic compounds into word stemsprefixes, and suffixes.
In the process, a considerable amount of morphology is discussed, particularly regarding the combination of sequential sounds, which leads to the modalities of sandhi. The Samaveda Pratishakhya, one of the earliest,  organizes the stop consonant sounds into a 5x5 varga or square:.
The alphabet is designed such that the difference between sounds is preserved whether you recite it horizontally or vertically. It was extended and completed with fricatives and sibilantssemi-vowelsand vowelsand was eventually codified into the Brahmi alphabetwhich is one of the most systematic sound-to-writing mappings. In the course of that development the basic concepts of phonology were discovered and defined.
The Varga system and the Pratishakshyas, contributions of the Shiksha texts, are elaborate systems which deal with the generation and classification of sound.You can change your city from here. We serve personalized stories based on the selected city. From Bigg Boss Tamil 3 to Kodeeswari: Here are the non-fiction shows to entertain viewers during lockdown. Refrain from posting comments that are obscene, defamatory or inflammatory, and do not indulge in personal attacks, name calling or inciting hatred against any community.
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